We visited the beautiful Rivers Boyle and Feorish in the upper River Shannon catchment last week. We found that there was a good stock of brown trout present in both rivers – but salmon were absent as they have been for almost twenty years. However, did you know that in 1994 significant numbers of salmon returned and spawned successfully in these rivers – along with other parts of the upper Shannon catchment – for the first time in decades?
The salmon that returned to the Rivers Boyle and Feorish in 1994 had been artificially restocked as unfed fry during the spring of 1992. Facilitated by the productive juvenile salmon rearing habitats present, significant numbers of them migrated down the Shannon system as one year old (1+) smolts during April 1993, many managed to get through the turbines at Ardnacrusha during May 1993, and then some returned as grilse during June 1994.
Having no salmon in the upper River Shannon is just a decision that ESB have made to favour hydroelectricity generation over biodiversity
The summer of 1994 was very wet and the ESB unusually spilled extra water from Parteen weir, above the base compensation flow. Attracted by the higher flows these fish ran through Castleconnell – rather than the entering the ‘dead end’ of the tailrace of Ardnacrusha. When the Parteen trap and fish pass was finally opened in September, the surviving 100+ of this cohort finally got through this obstacle and ran the Shannon. They passed through Lough Derg, onwards through Meelick weir, jumped Athlone weir, swam through Lough Ree and negotiated the weir at Termonbarry before perhaps resting briefly below Jamestown Weir, then onwards through Knockvicar weir, and finally arriving back into Boyle town and their natal River Boyle – even negotiating the small hydro scheme at Stewart’s Mills.
It seems like a long journey; however a smolt can do this in a week and an adult salmon with the drive to reproduce can do it in two. Geographically the Shannon is relatively small compared to what salmon were known to achieve on long European rivers; for example on the Rhine and Loire. Once past the Shannon dams, it’s plain sailing through the loughs and canalised River Shannon – with just a few bumps along the way – for an arch navigator like the Atlantic salmon. That winter these salmon spawned successfully in the River Boyle and the River Feorish. This was not known until the following summer when juvenile (0+) salmon turned up in electrical fishing surveys of these rivers – confirming that salmon had spawned in the upper Shannon for the first time in decades.
We did not find any juvenile salmon in the Rivers Boyle and Feorish last week, but we should not forget that some salmon managed to complete their life cycle in these watercourses some 20 years ago. Salmon are not in the upper Shannon because the ESB – or Electric Ireland as it appears on your bill – apparently ‘pulled the plug’ on the River Shannon Salmon Management Programme once it was clear that the salmon would come back if they were given half a chance. The achievement of getting salmon back to the upper Shannon in 1994 apparently worried the ESB as a Shannon with salmon runs would pose a conflict to their hydroelectricity generation requirements. Recent projects like the River Shannon AARC project have looked genetics, habitats, etc. while incredibly ignoring the key issues which are fish passage and water management at Ardnacrusha and Parteen.
So here we are, 20 years later, with just a few hundred salmon making it though the ESB Shannon dams each year in a river that has a conservation escapement target of 45,000 adult salmon annually. Our surveys this week confirmed that the habitats for salmon are still present in the upper Shannon, and there should be thousands of salmon returning each year to rivers in the upper Shannon catchment. Even if we were to partially address the water management and fish passage issues at the Shannon dams, salmon would return again to rivers like the Boyle and Feorish in Co Roscommon.
Other posts related to this this can be found at the links below:-
There can be salmon in the upper River Shannon again. Having no salmon in the upper River Shannon is just a decision that ESB have made to favour hydroelectricity generation over biodiversity. So what do you want – highly paid jobs for the privileged few or thousands of salmon returning to rivers like the Boyle, Feorish, and upper Shannon at Dowra and the associated economic benefits of this?
ESB’s Ballintra gates
There is of course more to this story and this will be covered in the next post. Some of the salmon that returned in 1994 were also destined for the upper River Shannon above Lough Allen. However, these fish had to negotiate yet another one of ESB’s dams on the River Shannon – Ballintra Gates at the outfall of Lough Allen – and this one is impassable. This dam has a dysfunctional ‘submerged orifice’ fish pass that was so badly designed that fish can’t find it, and any fish that enter it are overwhelmed by turbulence ‘noise’. In the winter of 1994/1995 two adult salmon were found dead downstream of this dam apparently unable to get through, and many others at this time are likely to have cruelly died here. In extensive electrofishing survey searches of the upper Shannon at Dowra and above, and other rivers such as the Owengar, Owenayle, Arigna and Yellow which flow into Lough Allen, no evidence of salmon spawning was ever found again despite millions of juvenile salmon fry being released in these areas. Today, some 20 years later, this ESB dam is another major barrier to fish migration on the River Shannon.
Do you have any records of salmon in the upper River Shannon? If so or if you have any comments please do not hesitate to contact us.